Living By Chemistry--Alchemy Standards Crosswalk Document









Lesson
Objective
Standards Addressed (include prioritization E, I or C)
Lesson Prioritization (E, I, C)
Timing Suggestion(s)
Lesson 1: A Penny For Your Thoughts
Use appropriate laboratory apparatus to complete an investigation in chemistry.

Predict the identity of an unknown substance based on characteristic properties

1.1.1 - Understand that: Scientists conduct investigations for a variety of reasons including to explore new phenomena, to replicate other’s results, to test how well a theory predicts, to develop new products, and to compare theories.

Be able to: Identify and form questions that generate a specific testable hypothesis that guide the design and breadth of the scientific investigation. (E)
Essential

Lesson 2: Whatsa Matter
Classify a group of items (all nouns) as being an example of matter or a non-example of matter.|

Using this classification scheme, create a definition for "matter."

Justify this definition by explaining why the non-examples do not fit the definition.

2.1.1 -
All matter is composed of minute particles called atoms. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. In the nucleus, there are neutrons with no electrical charge and positively charged protons. Negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus and overall, the atom is electrically neutral. (E)
Essential

Lesson 3: All That Glitters
Correlate the density of objects with the composition of those objects.

Evaluate whether the transformed penny from "Penny for your Thoughts" turned to gold by determining its density.

2.1.5 - An atom’s electron structure determines its physical and chemical properties. Metals have valence electrons that can be modeled as a sea of electrons where the valence electrons move freely and are not associated with individual atoms. These freely moving electrons explain the metallic properties such as conductivity, malleability, and ductility. (E)2.1.7 - A change in physical properties does not change the chemical composition of the substance. The physical properties of elements and compounds (such as melting and boiling points) reflect the nature of the interactions among their atoms, ions, or molecules and the electrical forces that exist between. (I)
Essential


Important

Lesson 4: A New Language
Relate the symbols and formulas used in chemistry to the names of chemical substances.

Apply key vocabulary related to chemistry appropriately and accurately.

2.1.2 -
Elements and compounds are pure substances. Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler materials by chemical reactions. Elements can react to form compounds. Elements and/or compounds may also be physically combined to form mixtures. (E)
Essential

Lesson 5: Create a Table, Breaking the Code
Reconstruct Mendeleev's work by organizing elements by their atomic weights and reactivities.

Compare the organization scheme to the modern Periodic Table of Elements.

2.1.4 -
The periodic table arranges the elements in order of atomic number (the number of protons). The elements are grouped according to similar chemical and physical properties. Properties vary in a regular pattern across the rows (periods) and down the columns (families or groups). As a result, an element’s chemical and physical properties can be predicted knowing only its position on the periodic table. (I)
Important

Lesson 6: Pudding and Clouds
Explain how the modern idea of an atom developed over time through the creation of models that explained the available evidence.
1.1.2 - Understand that: Science is distinguished from other ways of knowing by the use of empirical observations, experimental evidence, logical arguments and healthy skepticism.

Be able to: Design and conduct valid scientific investigations to control all but the testable variable in order to test a specific hypothesis. (E)
1.1.4 - Understand that: Investigating most real-world problems requires building upon previous scientific findings and cooperation among individuals with knowledge and expertise from a variety of scientific fields. The results of scientific studies are considered valid when subjected to critical review where contradictions are resolved and the explanation is confirmed.

Be able to: Construct logical scientific explanations and present arguments which defend proposed explanations through the use of closely examined evidence. (E)
1.1.5 - Understand that: In communicating and defending the results of scientific inquiry, arguments must be logical and demonstrate connections between natural phenomena, investigations, and the historical body of scientific knowledge. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001)

2.1.1 - All matter is composed of minute particles called atoms. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. In the nucleus, there are neutrons with no electrical charge and positively charged protons. Negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus and overall, the atom is electrically neutral. (E)

Essential


Lesson 7: Building Atoms, Subatomic Heavyweights
Explain how the atoms of different elements are similar to and differ from one another.

Relate the subatomic characteristics of atoms to the periodic table.

Calculate percentage of various isotopes of an element to the average atomic mass of that element.

2.1.1 -
All matter is composed of minute particles called atoms. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. In the nucleus, there are neutrons with no electrical charge and positively charged protons. Negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus and overall, the atom is electrically neutral. (E)
2.1.3 - Isotopes of a given element differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Their chemical properties remain essentially the same. (I)
2.1.4 - The periodic table arranges the elements in order of atomic number (the number of protons). The elements are grouped according to similar chemical and physical properties. Properties vary in a regular pattern across the rows (periods) and down the columns (families or groups). As a result, an element’s chemical and physical properties can be predicted knowing only its position on the periodic table. (I)
Essential


Important


Important

Lesson 8: Life on the Edge
Use the periodic table to predict the arrangement of electrons and the number of valence electrons in an atom.

Predict chemical properties of elements from the number of valence electrons in atoms.

2.1.1. All matter is composed of minute particles called atoms. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. In the nucleus, there are neutrons with no electrical charge and positively charged protons. Negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus and overall, the atom is electrically neutral. (E)

2.1.5 An atom’s electron structure determines its physical and chemical properties. Metals have valence electrons that can be modeled as a sea of electrons where the valence electrons move freely and are not associated with individual atoms. These freely moving electrons explain the metallic properties such as conductivity, malleability, and ductility. (E)

Essential

Lesson 9: You Light Up My Life
Make predictions about whether substances will dissolve in water or conduct electricity.
2.2.1 - Properties of solutions, such as pH, solubility, and electrical conductivity depend upon the concentration and interactions of the solute and solvents. (I)
Important

Lesson 10: Electron Glue, Noble Gas Envy
Predict the types of bonds that connect the atoms of a substance from the physical properties of that substance.

Relate understandings of valence electrons to bonding in forming stable octets.

Explain why noble gases are chemically unreactive.

2.1.6 - Ionic compounds form when atoms transfer electrons. Covalent compounds form when atoms share electrons. Both types of interactions generally involve valence electrons and produce chemical bonds that determine the chemical property of the compound. (E)
Essential

Lesson 11: Getting Connected, Salty Eights
Predict the formulas of ionic compounds based on the number of valence electrons in each.
2.1.6 - Ionic compounds form when atoms transfer electrons. Covalent compounds form when atoms share electrons. Both types of interactions generally involve valence electrons and produce chemical bonds that determine the chemical property of the compound. (E)
Essential

Lesson 12: Atom Inventory
Use balanced equations to illustrate the Law of Conservation of Matter in chemical reactions
2.3.1 - The total mass of the system remains the same regardless of how atoms and molecules in a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart. (E)
2.4.1 - Chemical reactions result in new substances with properties that are different from those of the component parts (reactants). (E)
Essential

Lesson 13: Some Things Never Change
Show evidence that overall mass of substances does not change after a chemical reaction
2.3.1 - The total mass of the system remains the same regardless of how atoms and molecules in a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart. (E)
2.4.1 - Chemical reactions result in new substances with properties that are different from those of the component parts (reactants). (E)

Essential

Lesson 14: Sniffing Around
Relate the smell of chemicals to their chemical name and molecular formula
1.1.4 - Understand that: Investigating most real-world problems requires building upon previous scientific findings and cooperation among individuals with knowledge and expertise from a variety of scientific fields. The results of scientific studies are considered valid when subjected to critical review where contradictions are resolved and the explanation is confirmed.

Be able to: Construct logical scientific explanations and present arguments which defend proposed explanations through the use of closely examined evidence. (E)
Essential

Lesson 15: Molecules in Two Dimensions, HONC if you Like Molecules
Relate smells of covalent compounds to the presence of certain functional groups.

Create structural formulas for covalent compounds according to bonding rules.

2.1.6. Ionic compounds form when atoms transfer electrons. Covalent compounds form when atoms share electrons. Both types of interactions generally involve valence electrons and produce chemical bonds that determine the chemical property of the compound. (E)
2.4.1 - Chemical reactions result in new substances with properties that are different from those of the component parts (reactants). (E)
2.4.6. Certain small molecules (monomers) react with one another in repetitive fashion (polymerization) to form long chain macromolecules (polymers). The properties of the macromolecules depend on the properties of the molecules used in their formation and on the lengths and structure of the polymer chain. Polymers can be natural or synthetic. (C)
1.1.4 - Understand that: Investigating most real-world problems requires building upon previous scientific findings and cooperation among individuals with knowledge and expertise from a variety of scientific fields. The results of scientific studies are considered valid when subjected to critical review where contradictions are resolved and the explanation is confirmed.

Be able to: Construct logical scientific explanations and present arguments which defend proposed explanations through the use of closely examined evidence. (E)

Essential, Compact

Lesson 16: Connect the Dots, Eight is Enough, Dots Dots and More Dots
Relate structural formulas and rules of bonding to the "Rule of Eight"



Lesson 17: Phase Matters
Relate the interactions of ions and molecules dissolved in water to the freezing point of water.



Lesson 18: Polar Bears and Penguins, Thinking (Electro)negatively, I can Relate
Relate atom electronegativity to polarity within a molecule or ionic compound.

Differentiate among ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds, and nonpolar covalent bonds.

Relate polarity (or ionic character) of bonds to solubility in water.