Cellular and Chemical Basis of Life Standards Crosswalk Document



Cellular and Chemical Basis of Life Content Cross-walking Document





Investigation
Objective
Standards Addressed (include prioritization E, I or C)
Investigation Prioritization (E, I, C)
Timing Suggestion(s)
Investigation 1: What's it Made Of?
Students will decide whether something is or was once made up of cells and will further contemplate what it means to be “living.”
Cells take highly varied forms in different plants, animals, and microorganisms. Structural variations among cells determine the function each cell performs.
E
1 class period(45)
Investigation 2: Not That Large, But Definitely In Charge
This Investigation is designed to be an introductory Investigation in cell structure and function. Students will observe six microscope slides to examine the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, to examine the different types of structures found in cells, as well as propose explanations for the functions of these structures. Students will then observe an unknown cell specimen and classify it based on their observations made during the first part of the activity.
Cells take highly varied forms in different plants, animals, and microorganisms. Structural variations among cells determine the function each cell performs.
All organisms, including plants, use the process of cellular respiration to transform stored energy in food molecules into usable energy. The energy produced is stored in the form of ATP and is used by organisms to conduct their life processes. Cellular respiration may require oxygen and adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
E,I
3 class periods
Investigation 3: Insane in the Membrane
Students will investigate the structure and function of the cell membrane by using magnetic models to represent the attractive forces of polar and nonpolar molecules.
Understand that: Science is distinguished from other ways of knowing by the use of empirical observations, experimental evidence, logical arguments and healthy skepticism.
The cell membrane is dynamic and interacts with internal membranous structures as materials are transported into and out of the cell.
E, E
3 class periods;
Investigation 4: Concentration!!
Students will model diffusion and osmosis to observe the predictable behavior of molecules as they move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. Having observed these phenomena, students will predict and test the role of temperature on diffusion rates.
The cell membrane is dynamic and interacts with internal membranous structures as materials are transported into and out of the cell.

Cells have distinct and separate structures (organelles), which perform and monitor processes essential for survival of the cell (e.g., energy use, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules, and storage of genetic material). The highly specific function of each organelle is directly related to its structure.
E, I
3 class period
Investigation 5: Try This on For Size
Students will use cell models of different sizes and shapes in order to calculate surface area to volume ratios. They will also work to determine how the size of a cell affects its efficiency in obtaining nutrients. Once students have collected data regarding surface area/volume ratios and efficiency, they will speculate on the limiting factors with respect to cell size.
The cell membrane is dynamic and interacts with internal membranous structures as materials are transported into and out of the cell.

The transport of materials across the membrane can be passive (does not require the expenditure of cellular energy), or active (requires the expenditure of cellular energy) depending upon membrane structure and concentration gradients.
E,I
2 class periods
Investigation 6: Matter Matters
Students will hypothesize and later observe what happens to the mass of a closed system containing soil, water, air and planted radish seeds before and after the seeds sprout. The ultimate goal is to illustrate a counterintuitive point that even when plant growth is observed, the mass of a closed system does not change. This discrepant event will allow students to open their minds to new information regarding the conservation of matter in living systems.
Cells carry out a variety of chemical transformations (i.e., cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and digestion) which allow conversion of energy from one form to another, the breakdown of molecules into smaller units, and the building of larger molecules from smaller ones. Most of these transformations are made possible by protein catalysts called enzymes.

Plant cells contain chloroplasts, which convert light energy into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. This chemical energy is used by the plants to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose molecules, that may be used for energy or to form plant structures. Photosynthesis adds oxygen to the atmosphere and removes carbon dioxide.

All organisms, including plants, use the process of cellular respiration to transform stored energy in food molecules into usable energy. The energy produced is stored in the form of ATP and is used by organisms to conduct their life processes. Cellular respiration may require oxygen and adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. .
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes resulting in the flow of energy and the cycling of matter in ecosystems.

E, E, E, E
1.5 periods prep; 1 period a week later
Investigation 7: What Does it Take?
Illustrate with models how mass is conserved during photosynthesis and respiration.
All organisms, including plants, use the process of cellular respiration to transform stored energy in food molecules into usable energy. The energy produced is stored in the form of ATP and is used by organisms to conduct their life processes. Cellular respiration may require oxygen and adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

In order to establish and maintain their complex organization and structure, organisms must obtain, transform, and transport matter and energy, eliminate waste products, and coordinate their internal activities. Cells take highly varied forms in different plants, animals, and microorganisms. Structural variations among cells determine the function each cell performs.
E, E,E
2 class periods
Investigation 8: What Goes Around Comes Around
Use technology to measure the changes in carbon dioxide concentration during photosynthesis and respiration.

Predict how animals and green plants will affect carbon dioxide concentration when they are placed together in a closed system.

Plant cells contain chloroplasts, which convert light energy into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. This chemical energy is used by the plants to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose molecules, that may be used for energy or to form plant structures. Photosynthesis adds oxygen to the atmosphere and removes carbon dioxide.
Cells take highly varied forms in different plants, animals, and microorganisms. Structural variations among cells determine the function each cell performs.All organisms, including plants, use the process of cellular respiration to transform stored energy in food molecules into usable energy. The energy produced is stored in the form of ATP and is used by organisms to conduct their life processes. Cellular respiration may require oxygen and adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes resulting in the flow of energy and the cycling of matter in ecosystems.

E, E, E
4 class periods
Investigation 9: You Are What You Eat
Experimentally compare the biomolecules present in a food source for cattle and a biological product of cattle.
Cells carry out a variety of chemical transformations (i.e., cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and digestion) which allow conversion of energy from one form to another, the breakdown of molecules into smaller units, and the building of larger molecules from smaller ones. Most of these transformations are made possible by protein catalysts called enzymes.
E
3 class periods
Investigation 9: You Are What You Eat Part Deux
Use models to explain how large proteins are broken down to amino acids during digestion, then re-assembled into different proteins.

Simulate the specificity of enzymes to catalyze a reaction.

Cells carry out a variety of chemical transformations (i.e., cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and digestion) which allow conversion of energy from one form to another, the breakdown of molecules into smaller units, and the building of larger molecules from smaller ones. Most of these transformations are made possible by protein catalysts called enzymes. A catalyst lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged and is not consumed in the overall reaction. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in living systems
E, I
2 class periods
Investigation 11: Milk Made
experimentally investigate the activity of enzymes in terms of creation of products resulting from enzymatic catalysis.
Cells carry out a variety of chemical transformations (i.e., cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and digestion) which allow conversion of energy from one form to another, the breakdown of molecules into smaller units, and the building of larger molecules from smaller ones. Most of these transformations are made possible by protein catalysts called enzymes. A catalyst lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged and is not consumed in the overall reaction. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in living systems
E, I
3 class periods
Investigation 12: Energy Boost
Explain the energy changes that occur in biological reactions.

Explain how enzymes affect the total energy changes and the activation energy of biological reactions.

. Cells carry out a variety of chemical transformations (i.e., cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and digestion) which allow conversion of energy from one form to another, the breakdown of molecules into smaller units, and the building of larger molecules from smaller ones. Most of these transformations are made possible by protein catalysts called enzymes.
.The rate of a chemical reaction depends on the properties and concentration of the reactants, temperature, and the presence or absence of a catalyst.
Energy is transformed in chemical reactions. Energy diagrams can illustrate this transformation. Exothermic reactions release energy. Endothermic reactions absorb energy.

A catalyst lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged and is not consumed in the overall reaction. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in living systems.
E, E, E, I
5 class periods
Investigation 13: Under the Influence
Explain how outside factors (pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration) affect rate of enzyme catalysis.
The rate of a chemical reaction depends on the properties and concentration of the reactants, temperature, and the presence or absence of a catalyst

A catalyst lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged and is not consumed in the overall reaction. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in living systems
E, I
3 class periods
Investigation 14: System Overload

The endocrine, nervous, and immune systems coordinate and help maintain homeostasis in humans and other organisms.
Multi-cellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavioral responses. These responses result from interactions between organisms of the same species, organisms of different species, and from environmental changes.
In multi-cellular organisms, cells perform specialized functions as parts of sub-systems (e.g., tissues, organs, and organ systems), which work together to maintain optimum conditions for the benefit of the whole organism.

The endocrine system consists of glands which secrete chemical messengers (hormones) that are transported via the circulatory system and act on body structures to maintain homeostasis.

The immune system consists of cells, organs, and secretions that protect the organism from toxins, irritants, and pathogens.

C, C, I, C, C
1 class period