Earth Systems Content Crosswalking Document

Earth Systems Content Cross-walking Document





Lesson
Objective
Standards Addressed (include prioritization E, I or C)
Lesson Prioritization (E, I, C)
Timing Suggestion(s)
Investigation 1: Birth of Stars and Planets: Investigating the Solar Nebula Theory
Use photographs to develop an understanding of the process of solar system formation.

Recognize that gravity is the driving force behind solar system formation

E- Standard 4-
The source of the Sun’s energy is the fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium, a process common in relatively young stars.

I- The motion and the basic elements (periodic table) that comprise our Solar System are consistent with the theory that the Solar System emerged from a large disk of gas and dust.

I- The Universe consists of billions of galaxies, each of which is a gravitationally bound collection of stars. I-
As a force, gravity causes tides, pulls matter together to make spherical stars and planets, maintains the orbits of planets, and gathers cosmic gas and dust to form stars and star systems.

I-Stars are separated by vast distances. Light which reaches Earth from distant galaxies is millions of years old and is actually a view of the past.
I-The Sun and our Solar System are part of the Milky Way galaxy consisting of billions of other stars that appear to be made of the same elements found on Earth.

E-Most elements are formed as a result of natural astronomical processes, either in the Big Bang itself or in the natural evolution of stars.
E-The Big Bang Theory is a core scientific theory that is supported by a large body of evidence and is well accepted by the scientific community. It states that the Universe began in a hot dense state of energy and matter, and the Universe has been expanding ever since.
I-Technology is vital in investigating the Universe.
I-Spectroscopes are used to analyze starlight to reveal information about the composition and evolution of stars.
E
Develop a second part addressing Bing Bang Theory and Origins of the Universe.

Connect with Alchemy Unit to explain the origin of elements resulting from a SuperNova.

Use an expanded set of pictures that show all steps of the origin of a Solar System.

Spectroscopes are used to analyze starlight to reveal information about the composition and evolution of stars.- Standard should be changed to a C because it not addressed in 9th grade.
Investigation 2: Differentiated Earth: Investigating the Formation of Earth's Layers
Explain why the layers of the Earth formed in a differentiated manner.

Construct models to describe and explain the formation of the Earth layers.

I-
The Earth’s atmosphere, crust, and interior have changed since the formation of the planets.E-
Earth’s geosphere is composed of layers of rocks which have separated due to density and temperature differences and classified chemically into a crust (which includes continental and oceanic rock), a hot, convecting mantle, and a dense metallic core.
E
The Earth’s atmosphere, crust, and interior have changed since the formation of the planets. - This standard should be changed to E.

Do the activity as a Demo to remind students of previous 7th grade density lessons.
Investigation 3: Age of the Earth: Investigating Radioactive Decay
Describe the radioactive decay process and why some elements decay.

Describe how radioactive decay can be used to determine the age of rock samples

Use models and simulations to describe the process of radioactive decay and the information it provides about the age of certain materials

I-
The Earth’s atmosphere, crust, and interior have changed since the formation of the planets. Driven by internal heat (radioactive decay and heat from accretion), the Earth’s layers have separated by density into a solid core, molten mantle, and crust of solid rock composed of plates.
E
Vital to add something about different forms of heat energy and convection, conduction, and radiation and their role in the Earth processes.
Investigation 4: Volcanoes: Investigating Volcanic Eruptions
Recognize that there are different types of volcanoes.

Identify volcanic products emitted during eruptions.

Explain how the properties of the magma influence the explosivity, type, and shape of volcanoes.

Explain how the products of volcanic activity influence both long-term and short-term changes to Earth systems.

Collect, organize, and display data using appropriate tools.

I-
The type and eruptive style of volcanoes is determined by the viscosity and gas pressure of the magma. The effects of these eruptions can have both local and global consequences.
E - the realationship between volcanoes and plate tectonics.

E- Effects on life and how it works.

C- Predictions of volcanoes.
Some readings additional more resarch on the overall effect of the eruption. Minimize the reading due to many readings being too far above reading ability.

It has been found that instead of doing formal verbal presentations sequentially, students should present findings on a whiteboard. Students should then be able to move from whiteboard to whiteboard gathering imformation.
Investigation 5: Volcanic Emissions: Investigating Volcanic Materials
Identify volcanic products emitted during eruptions.

Explain how the products of volcanic activity influence both long-term and short-term changes to Earth systems.

Observe the differences in color and texture of igneous rocks.

Make inferences about the origins of igneous rock based on color and texture.

Identify 9 of the major mineral groups based on observed physical and chemical properties.

Identify the elements that appear in the major rock forming minerals and locate them on the periodic table.

Collect, organize, and display data using appropriate tools.

E-
Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Common rock-forming minerals found in Delaware (calcite, quartz, mica, feldspar, and hornblende) can be identified by their chemical and physical properties.
E-
Rocks can be classified as igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary based on the method of formation. The natural cycling of rocks includes the formation of new sediment though erosion and weathering and of new rock through heat and compaction.
C-
The atmosphere can be described as being in a state of dynamic equilibrium which is maintained in part by plate tectonic processes which recycle atmospheric gases trapped in the ground back into the atmosphere
I
Discuss rock cycle briefly to remind students of prior middle school lessons.

Change to I-Common rock-forming minerals found in Delaware (calcite, quartz, mica, feldspar, and hornblende)
Investigation 6: Mystery of the Mega-Volcano: Investigating Evidence of Historic Volcanoes.
Investigate how technology enables us to better understand the Earth’s systems.

Identify volcanic products (lava, gas etc) associated with volcanoes and their eruptions.

Explain how lava, ash and gases influence both long term and short term changes in Earth systems.

Understand that investigating real world problems requires building upon previous scientific findings and cooperation among individuals with knowledge and expertise from a variety of scientific fields. The results of scientific studies are considered valid when subjected to critical review and explanations are confirmed.

I-The type and eruptive style of volcanoes is determined by the viscosity and gas pressure of the magma. The effects of these eruptions can have both local and global consequences.

E-Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Common rock-forming minerals found in Delaware (calcite, quartz, mica, feldspar, and hornblende) can be identified by their chemical and physical properties.


Investigation 7: All Shook Up: Investigating Earthquakes
Read first person accounts of earthquakes.

Plot the locations of the earthquakes on a world map.

Identify the primary effects of the earthquakes.

Identify the secondary effects of the earthquakes.

Identify the long-term effects of the earthquakes.

I-
Earthquakes result when rocks rupture and slide by one another releasing stored energy which travels through the geosphere in the form of waves. Local earthquake risks can be assessed and preparations made to minimize the hazards.
I
Add New Madrid earthquake 1800's, Haiti, and Chile Quakes from 2009-2010.

It has been found that instead of doing formal verbal presentations sequentially, students should present findings on a whiteboard. Students should then be able to move from whiteboard to whiteboard gathering imformation.

Minimize the reading due to many readings being too far above reading ability.
Investigation 8: An Earthquake in Your Community: Investigating Earthquake Waves
Use models to demonstrate what happens during an earthquake

Generate and describe two types of seismic waves

Simulate some of the motions associated with earthquakes

Infer the origin of earthquakes and the mechanism of transfer of seismic wave energy

Describe energy transfers and transformations that occur during earthquakes

I-
Earthquakes result when rocks rupture and slide by one another releasing stored energy which travels through the geosphere in the form of waves. Local earthquake risks can be assessed and preparations made to minimize the hazards.
E
Alternative movie instead of the DVD in the lessons, use UnitedStreaming Video "Earthquake-Proof House." to show effects/hazzards of Earthquakes.
Investigation 9: Monitoring Earthquakes: Investigating Earthquake Location
Use a model to demonstrate how waves move away from the location of an earthquake.

Interpret seismograms to determine the location of an earthquake.

Describe how earthquake size can be inferred from a seismogram

C-
Advances in science and technology (such as satellite imaging, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)) have improved our understanding of global and local changes that result from Earth system interactions, and our capacity to anticipate and mitigate natural hazards such as volcanoes and earthquakes.
I
The activity on locating the epicenter between 3 cities was VERY difficult for lower level students. To be used if time permits.
Investigation 10: Earthquake Hazards: Investigating the Effects of Earthquakes
Describe the effects on life and property from consequences of earthquakes such as landslides, liquefication, surface faulting, and tsunamis.

Describe ways these hazards can be minimized.

Describe ways in which people use historical data, geologic maps, and technologies to minimize earthquake damage.

C-
Advances in science and technology (such as satellite imaging, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)) have improved our understanding of global and local changes that result from Earth system interactions, and our capacity to anticipate and mitigate natural hazards such as volcanoes and earthquakes.
I
Alternative movie instead of the DVD in the lessons, use UnitedStreaming Video "Earthquake-Proof House." to show effects/hazzards of Earthquakes.

Investigations of the Origin and Effects of Earthquakes should be combined into 1 Investigation.
Investigation 11: Plate Tectonics: Investigation of Development of a Theory
Recognize that a scientific theory is supported by substantial evidence.

Analyze evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics

Recognize the role technology plays in gathering evidence for the theory of plate tectonics

Collect, organize, and display data using appropriate tools.

I-
Continental and oceanic rock differ in overall composition, density and age.
C-
These differences help explain the distribution and configuration of land masses and ocean basins.

E-
Tectonic plates press against one another in some places (convergence), pull apart in other places (divergence), or slide past each other. These plate movements may result in the formation of mountain ranges, and can lead to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. The consequences of these events impact the surrounding atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and the life existing within them.
E
Placement maybe varied to accomodate the needs and ability levels of students due to many students being familiar with the theory of plate tectonics. . *suggested placement could be after Heat Transfer.
Investigation 12: Plate Tectonics: Investigating What Drives the Plates
Examine how materials separate according to their densities.

Observe the effects of temperature on the density of a material.

Determine the density of some earth materials.

E-
Tectonic plates press against one another in some places (convergence), pull apart in other places (divergence), or slide past each other. These plate movements may result in the formation of mountain ranges, and can lead to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. The consequences of these events impact the surrounding atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and the life existing within them.
E
Rearrange or accomodate : See Above