Chemistry Standards Crosswalk Document








Lesson
Objective
Standards Addressed (include prioritization E, I or C)
Lesson Prioritization (E, I, C)
Timing Suggestion(s)
Scientific Method,
Differentiate the Steps of the Scientific Method.

Standard 1: Nature and Application of Science and Technology 1.1.1. Understand that: Scientists conduct investigations for a variety of reasons including to explore new phenomena, to replicate other’s results, to test how well a theory predicts, to develop new products, and to compare theories.

Be able to: Identify and form questions that generate a specific testable hypothesis that guide the design and breadth of the scientific investigation. (E)

1.1.2. Understand that: Science is distinguished from other ways of knowing by the use of empirical observations, experimental evidence, logical arguments and healthy skepticism.

Be able to: Design and conduct valid scientific investigations to control all but the testable variable in order to test a specific hypothesis. (E)

1.1.3. Understand that: Theories in science are well-established explanations of natural phenomena that are supported by many confirmed observations and verified hypotheses. The application of theories allows people to make reasonable predictions. Theories may be amended to become more complete with the introduction of new evidence.

Be able to: Collect accurate and precise data through the selection and use of tools and technologies appropriate to the investigations. Display and organize data through the use of tables, diagrams, graphs, and other organizers that allow analysis and comparison with known information and allow for replication of results. (E)
1.1.4. Understand that: Investigating most real-world problems requires building upon previous scientific findings and cooperation among individuals with knowledge and expertise from a variety of scientific fields. The results of scientific studies are considered valid when subjected to critical review where contradictions are resolved and the explanation is confirmed.

Be able to: Construct logical scientific explanations and present arguments which defend proposed explanations through the use of closely examined evidence. (E)

1.1.5 Understand that: In communicating and defending the results of scientific inquiry, arguments must be logical and demonstrate connections between natural phenomena, investigations, and the historical body of scientific knowledge. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001)

Be able to: Communicate and defend the results of scientific investigations using logical arguments and connections with the known body of scientific information. (E)

1.1.6. Understand that: Knowledge and skill from sources other than science are essential to scientific inquiry. These include mathematics, reading, writing, and technology.

Be able to: Use mathematics, reading, writing and technology when conducting scientific inquiries. (E)
1.2.1. The pursuit of science can generate the need for advanced technology. Advanced technology, in turn, can provide the opportunity to pursue new scientific knowledge. (I)

1.2.2. The social, economic, and political forces of a society have a significant influence on what science and technology programs are pursued, funded, and implemented. (I)



Bicycle Wheel,
Historic Models,
Atomic Theory,
Atomic Structure,
Conduct Experiments,
Identification of Elements,
Element Brochures,
Element Zoo,
Electrolysis,
Bright line Spectrum,
Beanium,
Construct Periodic Table,
Secret Agent Lab,
Arrange the elements by its properties,
electron configuration,
Expanding the periodic table. order of fill,
Swimmers stretch,
conductivity testers.
Exciting pickling,
A.I. Cheer,
Gainer, Loser,
Conductivity Tester,
Freeze melt,
FP BP Depression,
Ice Cream Lab, Solubilty Experiment, Seperatory Funnel,
pH paper,
titrations, Conversation of Mass,
Pop Lab,


Candy radioactive decay, Geiger Counter


Phyisic vs Chemical Changes Lab, Metals acids


Tritrations, Activity of Metals, Decomposition of Copper Carbonate


Three H2O2, Catalyze, Liver Stinks


Exo vs Endo,Icepacks, Hotpack, Hot Ice

Standard 2: Materials and their Properties 2.1.1. All matter is composed of minute particles called atoms. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. In the nucleus, there are neutrons with no electrical charge and positively charged protons. Negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus and overall, the atom is electrically neutral. (E)
2.1.2. Elements and compounds are pure substances. Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler materials by chemical reactions. Elements can react to form compounds. Elements and/or compounds may also be physically combined to form mixtures. (E)
2.1.3. Isotopes of a given element differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Their chemical properties remain essentially the same. (I)
2.1.4. The periodic table arranges the elements in order of atomic number (the number of protons). The elements are grouped according to similar chemical and physical properties. Properties vary in a regular pattern across the rows (periods) and down the columns (families or groups). As a result, an element’s chemical and physical properties can be predicted knowing only its position on the periodic table. (I)
2.1.5. An atom’s electron structure determines its physical and chemical properties. Metals have valence electrons that can be modeled as a sea of electrons where the valence electrons move freely and are not associated with individual atoms. These freely moving electrons explain the metallic properties such as conductivity, malleability, and ductility. (E)
2.1.6. Ionic compounds form when atoms transfer electrons. Covalent compounds form when atoms share electrons. Both types of interactions generally involve valence electrons and produce chemical bonds that determine the chemical property of the compound. (E)
2.1.7 A change in physical properties does not change the chemical composition of the substance. The physical properties of elements and compounds (such as melting and boiling points) reflect the nature of the interactions among their atoms, ions, or molecules and the electrical forces that exist between. (I)
2.2.1
Properties of solutions, such as pH, solubility, and electrical conductivity depend upon the concentration and interactions of the solute and solvents. (I)

2.2.2 A variety of methods can be used to separate mixtures into their component parts based upon the chemical and physical properties of the individual components. (I)
2.3.1. The total mass of the system remains the same regardless of how atoms and molecules in a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart. (E)

2.3.2. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo spontaneous and predictable nuclear reactions emitting particles and/or radiation, and become new isotopes that can have very different properties. In these nuclear changes, the total of the mass and energy remains the same. (I)
2.4.1. Chemical reactions result in new substances with properties that are different from those of the component parts (reactants). (E)

2.4.2. There are different types of chemical reactions. Precipitation reactions produce insoluble substances (e.g., double replacement). The transfer of electrons between atoms is a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction (e.g., single-replacement combustion, synthesis, decomposition). Some acid/base reactions involve the transfer of hydrogen ions. (I)

2.4.3. The rate of a chemical reaction depends on the properties and concentration of the reactants, temperature, and the presence or absence of a catalyst. (E)

2.4.4. Energy is transformed in chemical reactions. Energy diagrams can illustrate this transformation. Exothermic reactions release energy. Endothermic reactions absorb energy. (E)
2.4.5 A catalyst lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged and is not consumed in the overall reaction. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in living systems. (I)




Standard 3: Energy and Its Effects

3.1.1. Electromagnetic waves carry a single form of energy called electromagnetic (radiant) energy. (E)

3.1.2. An object has kinetic energy because of its linear motion, rotational motion, or both. The kinetic energy of an object can be determined knowing its mass and speed. The object’s geometry also needs to be known to determine its rotational kinetic energy. An object can have potential energy when under the influence of gravity, elastic forces or electric forces and its potential energy can be determined from its position. (E)

3.1.3. Mechanical waves result from the organized vibrations of molecules in substances. Kinetic energy can be transferred very quickly over large distances by mechanical waves. (E)

3.1.4. Thermal (heat) energy is associated with the random kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. (E)

3.1.6. Chemical energy is derived from the making and breaking of chemical bonds. (E)

3.2.1. Forces change the motion of objects. Newton’s Laws can be used to predict these changes. (E)

3.2.2. Forces are mechanisms that can transfer energy from one object to another. A force acting on an object and moving it through a distance does work on that object and changes its kinetic energy, potential energy, or both. Power indicates the rate at which forces transfer energy to an object or away from it. (E)


3.2.3. The momentum of an object can be determined from the object’s velocity and it’s mass. An impulse represents how much the momentum of an object changes when a force acts on it. The impulse can be used to estimate the size of the force acting on the object. (E)

3.2.4. The Law of Conservation of Momentum can be used to predict the outcomes of collisions between objects and can aid in understanding the energy transfers and energy transformations in these collisions. (I)

3.2.5. Gravity is a universal force of attraction that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength
of the force depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them. The force of gravity is generally not important unless at least one of the two masses involved is huge (a star, the Earth or another planet or a moon). (E)
3.2.6. Electric forces between charged objects are attractive or repulsive. The electric forces between electrons and protons are attractive, determine the structure of atoms, and are involved in all chemical reactions. The electromagnetic forces acting between atoms or molecules are much stronger than the gravitational forces between the same atoms or molecules and are responsible for many common forces such as friction, tensions and supporting forces. (I)
3.2.8. Electric currents create magnetic fields, and changing magnetic fields induce electric currents. The electric and magnetic forces that result from this interaction are the basis for electric motors, electric generators, and other modern technologies. (E)
3.3.1. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Energy can be transferred from one object to another and can be transformed from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Recognizing that energy is conserved, the processes of energy transformation and energy transfer can be used to understand the changes that take place in physical systems. (E)

3.3.2. Most of the changes that occur in the universe involve the transformation of energy from one form to another. Almost all of these energy transformations lead to the production of some

heat energy, whether or not heat energy is the desired output of the transformation process. (E)

3.3.3. Waves (e.g., sound and seismic waves, waves in water, and electromagnetic waves) carry energy that can have important consequences when transferred to objects or substances. (E)

3.3.4. When waves interact with materials, the energy they transfer often leads to the formation of other forms of energy. These interactions, which depend upon the nature of the material and the wavelength of the waves, can be used to create practical devices (e.g., sonar and ultra sound imaging, solar cells, remote control units, and communication devices). (I)

3.3.5. Through reflection and refraction, electromagnetic waves can be redirected to produce concentrated beams or images of their source. (I)

3.4.1. Demand for energy by society leads to continuous exploration in order to expand supplies of fossil fuels. Nuclear energy is an alternative form of energy. Through the use of fission reactors, nuclear energy is already widely used for the generation of electrical energy. Additional technologies are being developed to increase the use of other alternate energy sources. (E)

3.4.2. The increase in energy demand and the new technologies being developed to meet these needs and improve the efficiencies of energy systems have social and environmental consequences. Societal expectations for a sustainable environment will require new, cleaner technologies for the production and use of energy. (E)